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roman empire merchants

had to pay taxes to appease caliphates on pilgrimages Interesting! This was likely due to the Muslim conquests in the Mediterranean region, which resulted in many Christian territories falling under Muslim rule. As a result, Christian merchants traveling on pilgrimage to Jerusalem and other holy sites were sometimes subject to extra taxes or tolls imposed by the Muslim authorities. These taxes were considered a form of tribute or protection payment to ensure safe passage for the pilgrims and their goods. This practice continued in some form even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the Crusades.