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political pendulum in Brazil

The political pendulum in Brazil has swung back and forth over the years, with different factions and ideologies gaining power and influence at different times. During the early 20th century, Brazil was under the rule of several authoritarian governments, including the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas from 1930 to 1945 and 1951 to 1954. This period was marked by political instability and economic crises, but also saw the rise of Brazil's nationalistic and populist movements. In 1964, a military coup overthrew the democratically-elected government of President João Goulart and established a military dictatorship that would last for 21 years. During this period, the pendulum swung towards authoritarianism, with severe restrictions on civil liberties, censorship, and human rights abuses. In the late 1970s, a movement for democracy began to gain momentum, and by the 1980s, opposition to the military regime had grown significantly. In 1985, Brazil returned to civilian rule with the election of Tancredo Neves as president. However, he died before taking office, and his vice president, José Sarney, assumed the presidency. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Brazil experienced a series of economic and political crises, including high inflation, corruption scandals, and social unrest. The country also struggled to establish a stable democracy, with multiple changes in government and party alliances. This period saw the emergence of the Workers' Party (PT), led by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, as a major political force. In 2002, Lula was elected president, marking a significant shift in Brazil's political landscape. Under his leadership, the country experienced economic growth and social progress, with policies focused on reducing poverty and income inequality. However, his presidency was also marked by corruption scandals that tarnished the PT's image and led to several high-ranking officials being convicted and imprisoned. In 2016, the political pendulum swung back towards conservatism with the impeachment of Lula's successor, Dilma Rousseff of the PT, on charges of budget manipulation. Her conservative vice president, Michel Temer, took over the presidency and implemented economic reforms, but faced significant backlash and protests from the public. In 2018, the pendulum swung back towards the left with the election of Jair Bolsonaro, a right-wing populist who promised to combat corruption and crime. However, his presidency has been marked by controversial policies, including loosening gun restrictions and rolling back environmental protections, as well as a polarizing rhetoric that has divided the country. Overall, the political pendulum in Brazil continues to swing between liberal and conservative ideologies, reflecting the country's diverse and often polarized society. The upcoming 2022 presidential election will be a crucial turning point in determining the direction of Brazil's political future.