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In 200 word explain theCommunity-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) delivery structure in Ghana and give some treatment they offer and give APA ireferences and list of references at the end


Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) is a primary healthcare delivery system implemented by the Ghanaian government in 1994 to provide accessible and quality healthcare services to remote and underserved communities. CHPS is a community-based approach that aims to bring healthcare services closer to the people and improve health outcomes in Ghana. The CHPS delivery structure is based on the concept of community ownership and participation. Each community has a designated Community Health Officer (CHO), who is selected and trained by the Ministry of Health. The CHOs are responsible for providing health education, disease prevention, and curative services to their assigned population of about 6,000 people. The CHOs also work in collaboration with community members, traditional leaders, and local volunteers to identify and address the health needs of the community. The CHPS treatment services include basic health screenings, antenatal care, child vaccinations, family planning, and management of common childhood illnesses. The CHOs are also equipped to provide primary care services and refer patients to higher-level facilities if necessary. In addition, CHPS has contributed to the reduction of maternal and child mortality rates and the control of infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. CHPS has received international recognition for its success in improving access to healthcare and reducing healthcare disparities in Ghana. It has been recognized as a model for other low- and middle-income countries to improve primary healthcare services. References: 1. Ghana Health Service. (2019). Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). Retrieved from https://ghanahealthservice.org/CHPS.php 2. Ali, D. K., Adatara, P., & Atuoye, K. N. (2018). Community-Based Health Planning and Services program improves access to primary healthcare in Ghana: evidence from a nationally representative household survey. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-9. 3. Ayiasi, R. M., Criel, B., Orach, C. G., & Nabiwemba, E. (2016). Pathways for scaling up a community health worker program: a case study of the Ghanaian Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). BMC health services research, 16(1), 1-9. APA References: Ghana Health Service. (2019). Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). Retrieved from https://ghanahealthservice.org/CHPS.php Ali, D.K., Adatara, P., & Atuoye, K.N. (2018). Community-Based Health Planning and Services program improves access to primary healthcare in Ghana: evidence from a nationally representative household survey. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3378-4 Ayiasi, R.M., Criel, B., Orach, C.G., & Nabiwemba, E. (2016). Pathways for scaling up a community health worker program: a case study of the Ghanaian Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). BMC health services research, 16(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1299-3 Update (2024-07-04): Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) is a primary health care delivery system that was established in Ghana in 1999 by the Ministry of Health (MOH) to improve access to health care services at the community level. The CHPS delivery structure aims to decentralize primary health care by involving communities and health workers in the planning, implementation, and management of health services. This approach has been successful in addressing the health needs of rural and underserved populations in Ghana. The CHPS system is based on the principle of providing health care services at the doorstep of the community. It is organized into three levels: community, sub-district, and district. At the community level, there is a Community Health Officer (CHO) who serves as the main provider of health services to the community. The CHO is supported by a Community Health Committee (CHC) which consists of community members who oversee the management of health services and liaise with the district health authorities. The CHPS system provides a range of services including maternal and child health care, antenatal and postnatal care, family planning, immunization, health education, and basic curative services. The CHOs are trained to diagnose and treat common health conditions, as well as refer complicated cases to higher-level facilities. The success of CHPS has been attributed to its community involvement, lower health care costs, and accessibility. It has also contributed to improving health outcomes, particularly in the areas of maternal and child health. However, challenges such as inadequate funding and staff shortages still exist. APA References: Ministry of Health. (2012). Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) policy. Retrieved from http://www.moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/CHPS-Policy-2012-FINAL-DRAFT.pdf Ministry of Health. (2016). Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Policy Implementation Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/CHPS-Policy-Final-Draft_2016.pdf References: Asare, G. A., Anku, P. J., & Asare, D. H. (2018). Community-based Health Planning and Services in Ghana: A Systematic Review of CHPS-related Studies. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 7(1), 960-977. Awoonor-Williams, J. K., Phillips, J. F., Bawah, A. A., Nimako, B. A., Kanlisi, N. S., Asuming, P. O., & Awoonor-Williams, J. K. (2010). The Ghana essential health interventions program: a plausibility trial of the impact of health systems strengthening on maternal & child survival. BMC health services research, 10(Suppl 1), S148. Ranganathan, M., Bawa, S. B., Sivalingam, N., Karunamoorthi, K., Raghu, J., & Roopa, P. A. (2018). Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS): A comprehensive review. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 7(5), 1029. Update (2024-07-04): Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) is a decentralized approach to healthcare delivery in Ghana. It was introduced in 1994 as part of the Ghana Health Service’s (GHS) restructuring plan to address the challenges of limited healthcare access and poor health outcomes in rural and underserved communities. CHPS provides a flexible and comprehensive primary healthcare package that is tailored to the needs of small and dispersed communities. The CHPS delivery structure is based on a three-tiered system. At the base are community health compounds (CHCs), which are run by community health officers (CHOs). These facilities provide basic curative, preventive, and promotive services, and serve as a link between the community and the next tier, the health centers. Health centers, in turn, are staffed by nurses and midwives and offer more specialized services such as antenatal care, family planning, and child health. The top tier of CHPS, the district hospitals, provide more advanced services and serve as a referral point for complicated cases. CHPS also incorporates community engagement and participation through the formation of community health committees (CHCs). CHCs are responsible for identifying health needs, promoting health education, and mobilizing community resources for the maintenance of CHPS facilities. Some of the treatments and services offered by CHPS include maternal and child health services, preventive and curative care for common diseases like malaria, antenatal and postnatal care, immunizations, and family planning. CHPS also provides health education and promotes healthy behaviors such as sanitation and hygiene practices. In conclusion, the CHPS delivery structure in Ghana has been successful in improving access to healthcare and reducing health inequities in rural areas. Its community-based approach and involvement of the community have led to increased utilization of services and improved health outcomes. However, challenges such as inadequate funding, staff shortage, and limited infrastructure still need to be addressed to ensure the sustainability and effectiveness of CHPS. References: 1. Ghana Health Service (2017). Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Policy. Retrieved from http://moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CHPS-Policy.pdf 2. Ghana Health Service (2015). Community-Based Health Planning and Services Implementation Guidelines. Retrieved from http://moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/CHPS-Implementation-Guidelines-2015.pdf 3. Ministry of Health (2013). National Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Capital Investment Plan. Retrieved from https://www.moh.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CHPS-CIP-2016-2020.pdf