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Explain the responsibilities and functions of the DHS Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and ICE’s coordination with different jurisdictions. Evaluate ethical, legal, and social justice issues for actions of ICE. Examine members’ skills for actio

The Department of Homeland Security's Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) was formed in 2003 after the 9/11 attacks to protect the national security and public safety of the United States. Its primary responsibility is to enforce federal immigration and custom laws within the country's borders. ICE has several main functions and responsibilities, including: 1. Immigration Enforcement: ICE is responsible for identifying and removing individuals who pose a threat to public safety or national security and those who violate the country's immigration laws. 2. Border Security: ICE works closely with other federal agencies to secure the country's borders and prevent illegal entry of people and goods into the country. 3. Homeland Security Investigations (HSI): This division of ICE investigates and disrupts criminal organizations and terrorist groups that engage in activities related to illegal immigration, drugs, weapons, human trafficking, and financial crimes. 4. Intelligence and Information Sharing: ICE collects and shares intelligence and information with other law enforcement agencies to identify and track individuals or groups that pose a threat to the country's security. 5. Victim Assistance: ICE provides assistance and support to victims of crimes committed by individuals who are in the country illegally. 6. Coordination with Different Jurisdictions: ICE works closely with federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies to enforce immigration and custom laws and ensure public safety. ICE also has agreements with some local law enforcement agencies to delegate immigration enforcement authority. Ethical, Legal, and Social Justice Issues: ICE's actions have been a topic of controversy, particularly concerning the treatment of undocumented immigrants and families. Some argue that ICE's aggressive enforcement tactics, such as raids and detentions, are a violation of human rights and lack ethical and moral considerations. Critics have also raised concerns about ICE's cooperation with local law enforcement agencies, which can lead to racial profiling and unjust deportation of individuals. From a legal perspective, ICE is responsible for enforcing federal immigration laws, which have been criticized for being outdated and in need of reform. The use of immigration detention centers and family separation policies have also been subject to legal challenges. In terms of social justice, ICE's actions have raised concerns about discrimination and unequal treatment of certain communities, specifically refugees, asylum seekers, and undocumented immigrants. This has led to protests and calls for ICE to be abolished or reformed. ICE Member Skills and Technology: ICE members undergo rigorous training to acquire skills like immigration law, investigative techniques, and cultural diversity. They also receive specialized training in areas such as human trafficking and cybercrime investigations. ICE also relies on technology and data analytics to identify and track criminal organizations and individuals engaged in illegal activities. This includes biometric technology, surveillance systems, and secure communication networks. Effectiveness for Homeland Security: ICE has been effective in securing the country's borders, disrupting criminal activity, and removing dangerous individuals from the country. However, its effectiveness in addressing immigration issues and public safety concerns has been controversial. Some argue that ICE's tactics create fear and anxiety within immigrant communities, hindering their ability to report crimes and cooperate with law enforcement. Others argue that ICE plays a crucial role in preventing terrorism and protecting national security. Policy Issues for ICE: One of the main policy issues for ICE is its approach to immigration enforcement. There have been calls for ICE to focus on removing individuals who pose a real threat to the country's security and public safety, rather than targeting all undocumented immigrants. Another policy issue is the use of detention centers and family separation policies, which have been criticized for being inhumane and traumatizing for children. ICE's coordination with different jurisdictions also raises policy questions, particularly concerning the voluntary cooperation between ICE and local law enforcement agencies. Some argue that this undermines trust between immigrant communities and local law enforcement and leads to civil rights violations. In conclusion, while ICE plays a critical role in protecting the country's homeland security, its actions and policies have also been a subject of ethical, legal, and social justice concerns. It is crucial for ICE to balance its responsibilities and functions with the protection of individuals' rights and the promotion of public safety.