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Explain a method that can be used for managing stormwater and sediment with drainage controls in Australia. With references

One method for managing stormwater and sediment with drainage controls in Australia is through the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs are a set of principles, practices, and techniques used to prevent, control, and reduce the amount of pollutants, including sediment, in stormwater runoff. These practices are designed to mimic the natural hydrologic processes that would occur in undeveloped areas and help mitigate the impacts of urbanization on water quality. There are various BMPs that can be implemented at different stages of the stormwater management process to effectively control stormwater and sediment. These include: 1. Source Control: The first step in managing stormwater and sediment is to prevent them from entering the stormwater system in the first place. This can be achieved through source control techniques such as implementing erosion and sediment control measures on construction sites, minimizing impervious surfaces, and implementing green infrastructure practices such as rain gardens and bioswales. 2. Detention/Retention Basins: Detention and retention basins are designed to capture and temporarily store stormwater runoff, allowing sediment to settle out before the water is discharged into a water body or underground system. These basins help to reduce the flow rate and volume of stormwater, giving it time to settle, and also provide an opportunity for infiltration, which helps to replenish groundwater. 3. Inlet Protection: Inlet protection devices such as catch basin inserts or silt fences are installed around stormwater inlets to prevent sediment and debris from entering the stormwater system. These devices are especially useful in areas of high sediment concentration, such as construction sites. 4. Bioretention Systems: Bioretention systems are designed to mimic natural wetlands by using plants and engineered soils to filter, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff. These systems are effective in removing sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants from stormwater, while also providing a habitat for wildlife. 5. Permeable Pavement: Permeable pavement, such as porous asphalt, concrete, or interlocking pavers, allows stormwater to infiltrate through the surface and into the underlying layers, where it is treated and stored before slowly infiltrating into the ground. These pavements help to reduce the amount of stormwater and sediment runoff, while also providing a durable surface for vehicular traffic. Overall, the implementation of BMPs for stormwater and sediment management requires a collaborative effort between multiple stakeholders, including developers, engineers, regulators, and the local community. It is important to select BMPs that are appropriate for the site conditions and regularly maintain them to ensure their long-term effectiveness. A combination of different BMPs may also be necessary to achieve the desired level of stormwater and sediment control. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the implemented practices can help to identify any potential issues and make necessary adjustments for improved performance. In Australia, the use of BMPs for stormwater and sediment management is promoted by various government agencies, including the Department of Water and Environmental Regulation, the Queensland Government, and the New South Wales EPA. These agencies provide guidance and resources for the design, construction, and maintenance of stormwater and sediment control practices for different land uses and conditions. Compliance with these guidelines is also often required for development projects through the local planning and development permits. This ensures that BMPs are appropriately implemented and maintained, leading to better management of stormwater and sediment in Australia. In conclusion, the implementation of BMPs is a crucial method for managing stormwater and sediment with drainage controls in Australia. By mimicking natural processes and utilizing innovative techniques, these practices can effectively reduce and treat stormwater and sediment runoff, minimizing their impacts on water quality and quantity. Regular monitoring and evaluation of implemented BMPs can also help to identify any issues and make necessary improvements for long-term performance and sustainability.