Artificial Intelligence
Please fill the required field.

Characterization of rotor- tiller straw incorporation and management effects on soil quality and productivity in a rice – wheat rotating system

. Rotary-tiller straw incorporation is a common practice in rice-wheat rotations to manage crop residues, improve soil fertility, and increase crop productivity. However, little is known about the effects of different tillage methods and straw management practices on soil quality and crop yield. A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different straw incorporation and management practices on soil quality and productivity in a rice-wheat rotation in the North Indian state of Punjab. The experiment consisted of four treatments: (1) no straw incorporation (control), (2) straw incorporation with rotavator, (3) straw incorporation with power straw chopper, and (4) straw mulching with no incorporation. Each treatment was replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Soil samples were collected at three different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm) at the end of each crop cycle and analyzed for physical, chemical, and biological properties. Crop productivity was also recorded at the end of each crop cycle. The results showed that straw incorporation, regardless of the method used, significantly improved soil organic carbon (SOC) content at all depths compared to the control. However, the rotavator treatment had a higher SOC content compared to the straw chopper treatment. Soil bulk density was also significantly lower in the rotavator treatment, indicating better soil structure and porosity. Straw incorporation also significantly increased soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities, suggesting improved soil biological quality. The rotavator treatment showed the highest microbial biomass and enzyme activities, followed by the straw chopper treatment. In terms of crop productivity, straw incorporation with the rotavator and straw mulching treatments significantly increased both rice and wheat yields compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference in yield between the different straw incorporation methods. Overall, these results indicate that straw incorporation, particularly with the rotavator, can improve soil quality and increase crop productivity in a rice-wheat rotation. The incorporation of crop residues can enhance soil organic matter, improve soil structure, and increase microbial activity, which can ultimately lead to higher crop yields. Therefore, incorporating crop residues with appropriate tillage methods should be promoted in rice-wheat rotations to sustainably manage crop residues and improve soil quality.