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act as a nursing student and give the answer in long terms about 1000 words of following question by using appropriate heading points and bullets. the question is what do you understand by malpresentation ? list down the malpresentation. Describe the b

Malpresentation Malpresentation is a term used to describe an unborn baby in the wrong position in the uterus. The position of the baby in the uterus is very important for a normal vaginal delivery. Malpresentation can lead to a complex delivery and hence it is important to diagnose the condition early, with the help of fetal monitoring and ultrasound. List down the malpresentation • Cephalic presentation: This is the most common and normal form of presentation. In this position the baby's head is down in the uterus facing downwards towards the cervix. • Transverse lie: In this position the baby's body is across the uterus instead of along the long axis of the uterus. This is an abnormal position. • Vertex presentation: In this position the baby is head down but facing upwards, away from the cervix. • Shoulder presentation: In this position, the presenting part is the baby's shoulder. • Breech presentation: In this position, the baby's buttocks or feet come down first. Breech Presentation Breech presentation is a term used to describe an unborn baby in the wrong position in the uterus when the baby’s buttocks or feet come down first.In this position, the baby cannot travel down the birth canal properly and the delivery will be complex. Management 1. Antenatal management • Reassess fetal position The first step in the management of breech presentation is to reassess the fetal position through ultrasound. • Medical management If the patient has healthy uterus, her doctor may suggest external cephalic version. It is a procedure wherein the doctor manually changes the baby's position from breech to cephalic. • Prenatal exercise Prenatal exercise can be helpful in cases where medical management is unsuccessful. Pelvic tilts, pelvic rocks, lunges and squats are some of the exercises that can help the baby to turn and get into proper position. 2. Intrapartum management • Planned cesarean section Once the diagnosis is established and the baby remains in breech position, the doctor may suggest a planned cesarean section. This is the most common method of delivery in breech presentation. • Vaginal birth If the fetus is healthy then vaginal birth may be attempted. This is only possible if the baby is in breech-to-foot presentation. • Instrumental delivery Instrumental delivery can be considered if the doctor decides to attempt a vaginal delivery. It involves the use of vacuum extractor or forceps and can greatly increase the risk of injury to both mother and baby. Overall, the management of breech presentation depends on a number of factors such as the mother's health, age of the fetus and the baby's size and position. The doctor must assess the risk and benefit of each option before deciding the mode of delivery.

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